temporal lobe
Acronym: TL
The term temporal lobe refers to one of six divisions of the cerebral cortex defined by dissection in the human ( Ono-1990 ) and the macaque ( Martin-2000 ). It is located between the frontal lobe, from which, it is separated by the lateral fissure; the parietal lobe, from which it is separated by the terminal descending limb of the lateral fissure with ill-defined extension to the occipital lobe boundary; the occipital lobe from which it is separated by an oblique plane through the parieto-occipital sulcus on the dorsomedial margin of the hemisphere and the preoccipital notch on the ventromedial margin; and from the insula by the inferior limiting sulcus. On the ventromedial surface of the hemisphere it is bounded medially by the occipital lobe and the limbic lobe, from which it is separated by the collateral sulcus and the rhinal sulcus ( Duvernoy-1992 ).
     It is composed of six gyri. Those on the lateral surface of the hemisphere include the superior temporal gyrus, the middle temporal gyrus, and the inferior temporal gyrus. The latter continues onto the ventral surface of the hemisphere where it abuts the fusiform gyrus. Two other short horizontal gyri are hidden in the ventral wall of the lateral fissure: the anterior transverse temporal gyrus and the posterior transverse temporal gyrus ( Ture-1999 ).
     The lobe is similar in the macaque, except that it lacks transverse temporal gyri. Other differences are that the upper part of the caudal border is with the angular gyrus of the parietal lobe. That and the lower part of the boundary, which separates it from the occipital lobe, are unmarked by anatomical features. The boundary with the posterior parahippocampal gyrus of the limbic lobe is likewise ill defined ( Martin-2000 ).
      Equivalent structures are not found in the smooth cerebral cortex of the rat or mouse ( NeuroNames ).

Also known as: temporal cortex, temporal region, Lobus temporalisNeuroNames ID : 125

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